The landscape of Britain is littered with manmade structures that are thousands of years old. Guidebooks blithely point out dolmens, brochs, cromlechi, menhirs as though everyone knows what they are talking about by osmosis. But what are these things anyway? What do we know about them? And most important, how can you tell what you are looking at when you see one?
This alphabetical glossary of the terms used for prehistoric monuments in Britain should help you penetrate some of the mysteries.
Raised earth and stones over a grave or group of graves. Also referred to as a mound or tumulus.
Iron Age structure, found in north and west Scotland. It is a massive, round tower built with double-skinned, drystone walls. The two walls one inside the other, had a space between them and were tied together at various points. This feature meant the towers could rise to up to more than 40 feet. At one time they were thought to be defensive structures but there are so many of them that now archaeologists suggest they were simply massive statements of ownership or presence on the land. At least 50 have been discovered in Orkney although only a few of those are excavated. See the Broch of Gurness
British term for a cowshed. Prehistoric byres would have sheltered other livestock, and sometimes grain, as well.
At its most basic, a cairn is an arrangement of large stones placed as a memorial, a marker or a warning. In Britain, a ring cairn is a Bronze Age ritual site - a large circle of stones, found mostly in the Northwest of England, perhaps 50 or 60 feet in diameter. Excavations have found evidence of fires and human burials inside these. Kerb cairns, common in mid-Wales, are small circular mounds,surrounded by a kerb of stones that are higher than the mound. See a ring cairn excavation in the Lake District
Prehistoric causeways were Iron Age paths across boggy land usually laid with timbers on pilings to provide a firm footing. The Fiskerton Causeway
in the Witham Valley of Lincolnshire was created around 600 B.C.
Burial places accessed through some kind of portal and divided into one or more rooms for individuals, like a modern mausoleum, suggesting high status burials. Unexcavated chambered tombs look like mounds on the landscape. Some archaeologists now think that the bigger chambered tombs served a ritual function much as modern cathedrals do. If you were to excavate a cathedral you would find evidence of many burials yet the place it not simply a tomb.
An early form of "coffin" burial in a chest or stone box. See a Bronze Age cist burial
Bridges built of long stone slabs supported by drystone constructed piers. Because of their heavy constructions, it is thought they were used to allow pack horses to cross small streams. Clapper bridges exist in Dartmoor and Exmoor as well as Snowdonia in Wales. Some date from the middle ages and many are still in regular use on walkers paths.
A small artificial island, site of a prehistoric dwelling and found in lakes and estuaries in Scotland and Ireland. In the west of Scotland, crannogs have a foundation of stone and are usually overgrown with vegetation because animals don't graze on them. In some places crannogs were built on wooden pilings. See a picture of a crannog on Loch Awe.
Used in Wales to described a chambered tomb or the portal of a chambered tomb. Similar to a dolmen (see below).
A large flat stone supported by vertical stones in the form of a portal. Dolmen are the remains of Stone Age tombs after the mounds (or tumuli) associated with them have eroded through time. It's also possible that the portal role of the dolmen was symbolic rather than functional.
A circular or oval earthwork with a built up bank and a ditch inside the bank used for ceremonial purposes or for calculating time and seasons. The name henge is derived from Stonehenge
, the most famous example, which has a name in turn derived from Anglo Saxon for hanging or hinged stone. Much is made of the alignment of the sun, or moon, with various configurations of a henge and at the Summer Solstice
crowds of people arrive at Stonehenge to celebrate the shortest night of the year. But, in reality, the purpose of these alignments is still, pretty much anybody's guess.
Massive earthworks, from the Iron Age or earlier, with steep slopes and elaborate systems of ramps. Though they are obviously defensive, often built on the highest ground in an area, Iron Age hill forts also supported small settlements of dwellings, artisans and metalworkers. Maiden Castle
in Dorset and Old Sarum, near Stonehenge, are both examples of hill forts.
A large standing stone, sometimes carved with Stone Age art and symbols. Menhirs can be single standings stones, like the immense Rudston Monolith in the Yorkshire Wolds. About 26 feet tall, this menhir, in the All Saint' churchyard in Rudston, is the tallest standing stone in Britain and was erected about 1600 B.C. Other mehirs may be in group or even stone circles. The Standing Stones of Stenness
is a group of menhirs.
Similar to chambered tombs, passage tombs have an internal passage, lined with stones and roofed with stone lintels, leading to an internal, ceremonial chamber. Maeshowe
on Orkney is a remarkable passage tomb buried under a large circular mound. Orkney has many similar, currently unexcavated mounds.
A kind of roundhouse dwelling found in the Western Isles of Scotland, they consist of outer stone walls and stone piers, arranged like the spokes of a wheel, that support stone lintels and a corbelled stone roof.